Why Are You So Angry? Part 1: A Short History of Anita Sarkeesian


My high school was at the top of a big fuck-off hill, and many of us who didn’t live on any of the school’s bus lines got to walk down that hill every afternoon to catch the SamTrans. Next to us as we walked, a procession of students who owned cars would form, inching its way downstream to get backed up at the intersection below. One student in the procession stood out to us. We later learned, when one of us met him at a party, that his name was Jack. Jack was notable for three reasons. First, though he looked just like himself from head-on, sitting in profile in his car, he looked exactly like our friend Colin. Second, his car was a blue 1960’s Volkswagen Beetle, but with a glass pack installed to amplify the noise from the tailpipe. So when you turned your head expecting a Hell’s Angel to come up behind you, it was just Jack in his baby blue lovebug. And third, because he glared at us. Jack was the angriest stranger I had ever seen. Once again, out of his car and at a party, he was apparently a pretty nice guy. But at 2:45 in the afternoon, stuck in traffic in what was clearly his mom’s old hippie car, he would look out his window and sneer at us. Eyebrows knitted and furiously blasting his Bengal tiger of an engine at anyone who made eye contact, and as he pulled ahead, making his way down the hill towards the stoplight, we would call after him, “Why are you so angry?” When I spend too much time on the internet and see people, mostly young men, spewing and weirdly directing an incomprehensible anger, I remember Angry Jack. Anita Sarkeesian created the website “Feminist Frequency” in 2009. It doesn’t even seem that long ago. The site was created to host video critiques of popular culture, primarily geek culture, through a feminist lens, following in the nerd feminist traditions of Buffy Studies and the work of Lindsay Ellis, with early videos being largely critiques of sci-fi fantasy TV shows. Then, in 2011, in conjunction with Bitchmedia, she produced the series “Tropes vs Women”, analyzing 6 roles commonly played by women in television, movies, and comic books. Though the videos met with some expected resistance, they found their audience, and otherwise the internet, by and large, left her alone. She made several more videos for Feminist Frequency, including a look at the marketing history of Lego, and then in May of 2012, Sarkeesian ran a modest Kickstarter campaign to do another round of Tropes vs Women, this time focusing on video games. I warn you, if this is the first time you’ve heard of Anita Sarkeesian, it’s about to get really ugly. And by necessity, this is only a very abbreviated account. But there’s a full bibliography in the notes below the video. The campaign successfully reached its original goal in under 24 hours. By early June, it was 800% funded, had reached all of its stretch goals, and hadn’t posted an update since the end of May. I say this because many have argued that what was about to happen was, in some way, deliberately provoked to create a success. So I’ll clarify: Tropes vs Women in Video Games was already a success. It had exceeded all expectations and seemed prepared to just wait out the rest of its campaign. What happened next, it’s been suggested, began on a subforum of the anonymous and largely unmoderated website 4chan, though it’s hard to find patient zero on this. But somewhere on the internet, a finger was pointed at Anita Sarkeesian, and during her campaign’s final weeks, she began receiving thousands of angry tweets and YouTube comments. She had her site DDOSed, had her Wikipedia page vandalized with porn and racial slurs, and saw multiple attempts to have her campaign defunded and removed from Kickstarter. Many of these things were done by coordinated groups of people working together. This was unexpected. After a few days of this, Sarkeesian chose to document the harassment and post about it on her site and on her Kickstarter. Starting around June 10th, several news sites began writing articles about Sarkeesian’s experience using her posts as a primary source. This led to a huge uptick in exposure, and by extension, backers, and the campaign tripled its money before closing on June 16th. The combination of a large scale attempt to silence Sarkeesian and her decision not to be silent about it made her a minor feminist celebrity, and she closed the 6 thousand dollar campaign with just shy of 160 grand. In the three years since, this cycle has repeated and amplified dozens of times: an attempt to silence, followed by exposure of the attempt, followed by news articles and increased attention. And every time her detractors go off and plan more elaborate efforts to make Sarkeesian disappear, essentially creating next week’s Sarkeesian talking points. They’ve repeatedly tried to hack her personal information, they’ve sent her hundreds of highly specific death threats, some including the home addresses of her and her family, which she now dutifully screenshots and forwards to the FBI. In the reactionary web’s tendency to assume that anyone you hate must be a minority of some kind, many let loose with a torrent of anti-Semitism, dubbing her “Jewkeesian”, which, when her true heritage was determined, flipped to anti-Armenian commentary without skipping a beat. One created a video game about assaulting her. One threatened to blow up the game developers’ conference if they gave her an award. One threatened to shoot up a school if she was allowed to speak. They abuse YouTube’s flagging systems every time she posts a video and send her over 100 abusive tweets every week. I could go on. I can’t speak to the human cost this has had on Sarkeesian personally, so I’ll just let her speak for herself. “I don’t get to publicly express sadness or rage or exhaustion or anxiety or depression. I can’t say that sometimes the harassment really gets to me, or conversely that the harassment has become so normal that sometimes I don’t feel anything at all. I don’t get to express feelings of fear or how tiring it is to be constantly vigilant of my physical and digital surroundings. How I don’t go to certain events because I don’t feel safe. Or how I sit in the more secluded areas of coffee shops and restaurants so the least amount of people can recognize me.” Outside of these haters, the videos have been well-received and seen by a whole lot more people than had she simply gotten to wrap her campaign and make her videos in peace. The primary function is to critique a medium that hasn’t seen as much feminist analysis as the rest of pop culture. It is, in a roundabout way, a sign of gaming’s growing cultural legitimacy. Sarkeesian coins new phrases and puts forth new ideas, but the bulk of her work is compiling. Most of her views are shared by contemporary feminists, whom she quotes in her videos, and the interest in how women are portrayed in popular media goes back to the 60’s or earlier. Today much of this is taught in freshman level women’s studies and media literacy courses. This rhetoric is not new, and by most definitions of radical, it is not radical, and Sarkeesian is hardly the first person to apply it to games. All prompting the question of: Why? Why her? And why now? Sarkeesian herself has described it as being cast as the supervillain in a war against what she represents. The people who hate Anita Sarkeesian think she’s wrong. They think she’s lying. They think she hates men. They think she hates games. They think she cherrypicks information to skew opinions. They think she cheated people out of their money. They think she wants every game to be a walking simulator about lesbians and feelings. They think she wants to ruin games. And you can, if you squint and tilt your head, see how a person might possibly believe these things, but this can only explain that they are angry, not why. What is the nightmare scenario we’re supposed to live in if Sarkeesian simply makes her videos? So what if she did want to ruin games? So what if I wanted to ruin games? That doesn’t mean I’m capable of it. Can all of this be explained as wanting to stop a heretofore largely unknown woman on the internet from being wrong about something? Why are they so angry? For ease of conversation, I’m going to call this inexplicably furious person “Angry Jack”. And there is no single answer to this question. Jay Allen has described it as the spilling out of chan culture into the rest of the internet, and those thoughts have been expanded on by Lana Polansky. Katherine Cross has written about the gamers’ fear that some authority figure is going to take the games away, stemming from childhoods where games were controlled by parents and censored by politicians. Kom Kunyosying and Carter Soles have written about the appropriation of minority politics and terminology to describe geekdom as a sort of simulated oppressed ethnicity. Don’t read anything I’m going to say as debunking or overwriting these arguments; I agree with all of them. This is just one more log on the fire. The internet is full of Angry Jacks, and Jack is not exclusively, but is typically, male. He’s also commonly white and/or straight and/or cis and/or raised middle class, which is to say, he usually looks like me, and it is largely people who look like me in at least one of these ways that I want to speak to right now. To people who look like me, Jack is often a nuisance. To people who don’t look like me, Jack is frequently dangerous. And I don’t feel it’s my place to tell people for whom Jack is a danger, how they should think or feel about him. Though minoritized people are absolutely welcome to view this or any of my other videos and to hold me accountable to anything I fuck up. Also, Jack, if you’re watching, I’m afraid I’m not here to talk to you either. I’m here to talk about you. Though, if you made it this far, do please stick around, because our question “Why are you so angry?” is probably something worth asking yourself. To answer that question, I’m gonna have to talk about a whole lot of other shit, but bear with me. I am going somewhere with this.

100 comments

  1. I'm as left as they come, but at the same time I'm angry Jack. I dare people to try and convince me that Anita Sarkeesian isn't one of the worst famous people on this earth!

  2. I know this is 5 years late to the party, but did Anita ever do a piece on Starcraft 2? I see it in the pile of games in a photo in the video, and I'd be really curious to know what she thought of Kerrigan from a feminist viewpoint.

    I never really followed her stuff, though I did tend to agree with most things she said. But I really saw this "gamergate" or whatever the fuck it was called as the tipping point in internet culture where the internet switched from being a magical, amazing thing to a toxic, poisonous, hateful pile of slime and disgust that resulted in me deleting every piece of social media I owned (apart from my youtube account)

  3. Her content does have some problems with context and that she's gone back on her word regarding her history with video games, but there is no need to go mad on this woman.

  4. I take the feminist movement's peering into geek culture and saying "omg there's too many boobies and bad female stereotypes ect." as needless meddling and an attempt at censorship. Tropes exist, no dudes are cracking into romance novel culture and saying the trope of the Fabio ubermale is offensive it's escapist fantasy. The effects are already starting to set in, now a number of comics have killed off male versions of popular characters to replace them with female versions instead of creating unique individuals for people who don't feel represented properly in the medium. It's like demanding that comedians never joke about __ and to joke about ___ is too far and should be eliminated. You like the medium but don't feel it represents you? Cool go ahead and make something yourself instead of trying to inject your social representation into established intellectual properties. Quit shaming people into including your demographic into something that wasn't intended for your demographic.

  5. The first mistake you make is thinking your arguments don't apply to you because you frame the flaws in humanity in a way that they conveniently don't describe you. But fundamentally, they totally do. Righteous indignation and anger are fundamentally the same fucking thing.

  6. The hatred mob is obviously oh ysly horrible. But Sarkeesian ? Well. Theres a reason Femist frequency went broke. Mainly because shes a shallow grifter… and she did rip off her donors

  7. She makes a really good living out of being hated. It's true, there is one born every minute, the best way to get rid of this e-beggar is to totally ignore her, just like the media does when ever the establishment is threatened by something, they simply ignore it until it goes away. Learn from the masters.

  8. But,

    You decided to become a public figure…. Regular people don't deal with this trust me I know! I could sympathize, but there's a law against that

  9. My god, what a fucking weapons grade shit take video. You literally tell everyone that white people are the enemy to every other race at 8:40. What the actual fuck Innuendo. If that's how you're going to be and how most PoC actually feel, let the race wars begin. You're too far gone to be introduced back into civilized progressive society.

  10. 4 minutes in and I don't think I have ever heard so many lies in a youtube video pretending to be credible documentation of events

  11. I always based my assumptions of Anita by her actual words and she always just seemed 'holier-than-thou' and when she wasn't pointing out obviously sexist stuff that does deserve criticisms, she overanlylized video games to the point that she seemed to be finding sexism where there wasn't any. Even then, I don't see how she ever deserved any of the racist stuff.

  12. Yeah but she's against cyberbullyingand vid con in 2018 she pointed out that guy in the audience and said he was a human piece of trash in front of everyone. That's real life bullying and he was just sitting there quietly.
    But even if you think that fellow provoked her. Was that a good mature response?
    Disclaimer, I do not condone and disembowel any harassment she's received. It's disgusting some of the things you described that where done to her she deserves none of that.

  13. I know a lot of people are upset because she contradicted herself and said that she's been game and four years took that picture of her with all the games. And then after that at a public talkabout the tropes vs women in video game series she was going to do she said that she's not a gamer, so she had a lot of work ahead of her.so some people don't harass or they just don't like that she's disingenuous.
    Watching one of her tropes vs women video game she implied in Hitman that you had to kill the strippers in one of the levels. I played that same exact game and it's actually the opposite the, target isn't even female and you get penalized if you kill any of strippers. The point of that game is the only kill the target. You can kill anyone you want that's a personal choice.
    There's no excuse for some of the things people have done to her.
    I honestly personally don't like her.not from things I've heard but things I've seen her say it doesn't matter anyway. But I do not condone I disavow any harassment all the things he described that people have done to her.

  14. It's weird to me that you described your appearance in 5 ways and three of them you can't really see when you look at a person. I do know there are ways to tell or guess I would sayor guess I should say by looking at a person if they are middle-class cis-gendered or if they're gay or straight but I just found it funny said that you look straight and middle-class.
    I really enjoyed the video and it was really well-made. Just at the end when you ask that Jack's why are you so angry? You then proceeded to say for me to answer… Not saying don't do a video on what you think about why the jacks areangry. I just am afraid some of the jacks might find that condescending that you feel like you're going to answer for them. That's also might prevent some of them from actually answering the question.

  15. Maybe Angry Jack didn't like a group of people mockingly shouting "Why are you angry?" at him. Maybe he just had male Resting Bitch Face but you and your friends took it as a chance to mess with someone.

  16. White people who look like you are dangerous to people who aren't white? how? What manner of racism is this? Also fuck Jack. if it's gaming we're talking about at least make him angry Jax.

  17. I want to see what would happen if progressive politicians like Warren, Sanders or Cortez introduced legislation aimed at punishing companies like EA and Bethesda for all their bullshit.

  18. It's still okay if I just don't like her though, right? I'm pretty sure it's not her, it's what others do in her name, and they'd just pick some other name if she never existed, and yet… I can't seem to get past that.

  19. Despite the fact that I love the style of Innuendo's vids, I feel sad having to unsubscribe and dislike for his shockingly incorrect representation of why people criticize Anita Sarkeesian.

  20. "if you haven't heard of Anita Sarkeesian things are about to get ugly"
    only problem with that statement is that he already showed a photo of her

  21. this is straw-manning and intellectually lazy. Karen Straughan can explain to you why men dont like snarkeesian, and shes a cis white girl. also, yeah, they ARE coming for the games next, like they already got mens-only orgs, they're coming for the guns and already are coming for the pro-nouns and bathrooms. look at several states trying to ban or heavily tax games on sarkeesian's behest

  22. I disagree with many people out there, Sarkeesian included. But bullying, hacking and threathening people like this is unacceptable. There are ethical ways of fighting with things, ideas and groups you disagree with. But then you have to be disciplined and hold yourself to a high stabdard. Most people are too weak and lazy to do that to themselves.

  23. "It's the internet, get used to it. We're all harassed." Weird that you almost always hear this from men, or women that 4chan likes.

  24. Progrssives, socialists, and Democrats never say anything mean or threatening to people online. They never participate in dog-piling, never resort to insults or foul language, and never, ever say anything bigoted, insensitive, or slanderous in nature.

  25. Also comment sections on controversial topics in 2019 have more "oh no this comment section is bad" comments then there are actual bad comments

  26. She might either be one of the greatest opportunists who has been able to profit off of gamers or the perfect victim to the perfect storm who made the perfect mistakes. As someone who doesn’t quite believe in coincidences when they begin piling up around the same person, I feel that while quite a bit of animosity that Sarkesian has gained was well earned, that from the crazies was not. Every community has their crazies, there is no way to deny that. The best way to deal with them is to either shame or ignore them. What she did however, was generalize an entire community with ample experience of being looked down upon and open them up to more unwarranted and undeserved hate. Perhaps it’s my bias as being as young gamer who is looking at this now that it is mostly over and she is largely forgotten, but there is a vague line between accidental harm and malicious intent and her actions lean farther on the side of malice then it does hopeless naivety and misinformation.

  27. You always lose me when you start talking about "chan culture" and start acting like 4chan is alt right mentality. They're anarchists(literally operating within an anarchist society) on all different ends of the spectrum.

  28. You and I aren't invited at the U.N to help regulate internet.
    But she is.
    So yes. Her stupid ideas are dangerous. You absolute tool. And go fuck yourself with your white cis male privilege guilt.

  29. Also thx for coming up with a timeline showing how outrage about the voluntary outrageous stupid shit she says actually turns into money.
    That was the only useful thing.

  30. ohh fuck off 😀 your videos make a lot of sense but defending sarkeesian is dumb. just look for "i find videogames gross". she is one of the assholes which make the left look like idiots for her personal gain.

    ffs. watch contrapoints, vaush or even destiny. this video is trash. call assholes out for what they are. sarkeesian is a douche. i dont condone threats etc. but still. she is full of shit, as is this video.

  31. The only issue I have with Anita was that her brand of feminism kinda came off as a little misogynistic to me. Modern feminists want to abolish western (and the best ones want all) gender norms but anita she is very firmly for them (hence her not liking any feminist media where the women can be interpreted as masculine). It's kinda weird how she ascribes gender to solutions that both genders are more than capable of doing (Violence is masculine, Diplomacy is Feminine). On that note though, even with that particular gripe (basically she's a conservative feminist) I think it's extremely stupid to personally attack her. It's especially telling when a feminist work like mad max fury road, which is literally about the worst effects of the patriarchy on both men and women is not liked by Anita because the women didn't conform to her approved roles. Conservatives are stupid as hell for going after her… I mean she's practically one herself, just one that happens to be a feminist.

  32. There's a sweet irony in hordes of toxic idiots causing her Kickstarter to take in 26.5x its original stated goal, and making her an overnight celebrity, all in an attempt to shut her up.

  33. The weird thing is that there IS a lot of parallels between geek culture and oppressed minority groups, especially ones like homosexuality where you can sometimes/sorta hide being a part of it and you worry about being "outed". It's not (usually) to the same scale but if you're in middle or high school it can feel/be just as bad.

    I say weird thing because most of that is now gone with geek things being openly accepted before most of these people online were old enough to experience it. Also that taste of oppression should lead them to be more empathetic about it but instead they use it as an excuse.

  34. I remember this mess. Woman was relentlessly attacked, and it's sick. I used to dislike her due to that stupid echo chamber that bleated utter nonsense.

    2008, I came up with a idea was the female version of male protagonists in action games

  35. Yet, its 2019 and most people have forgotten her….and Feminist Frequency is broke and rarely updates it web page…so in the end, did her enemies win? Being in the spotlight and the center of controversy is hard, but being nullified and ghosted by society has to be harder. It seems she has been made irrelevant now… and nobody cares…. I think Sargon of akkad did win after all….

  36. "Alright, we gotra embarass our enemy, make them feel our seething hatred for them and their people"
    "How bouts we call that darn libtard Anita Jewkesian"

  37. I don't think Anita deserves death threats or to be raped or to be hacked. That's a bit extreme. With that said though, I don't like how she treats video games in general and even men who like video games. She makes it sounds like people who like video games that are violent are also violent and/or sexist creeps . And plus she's also abusive towards other people. She's overall not a very nice person nor does she listen to other opinions on the topic. The thing is, this person didn't even play video games but lies about it later to have some sort of foundation on the gaming community when she clearly doesn't represent them nor cares .

  38. There’s a simple reason why people hate anita

    She declares all of her detractors sexist and claims it’s not your place to talk it’s your place to listen

    She even called one person quote “a garbage human” INFRONT OF AN ENTIRE PANEL AT VIDCON

    Also Anita doesn’t even play video games

    So who is she to decide how they should be made

    This lack of understanding comes full circle when in her video about far cry 3 she claimed that the tribal leader had mystical powers WHEN IN REALITY it was simply drugs

    she also declared that tribes contributing to their own culture is RACIST

    So that’s several reasons to hate Anita

    And before you declare that I’m sexist for defending the anti feminist side

    Let me make you think for just a little bit

    If we live in such a terrible patriarchy why do women get to have children at will when men have to pay for it or get thrown in PRISON

    Why are women blindly believed when they accuse someone of rape or even sexual harassment

    And most importantly why when a ship sinks it’s women and children first onto the lifeboats then men

    PATRIARCHY MY ASS

  39. I am so sad. It is the first time i hear about anita (i dont live in america) and i am teriffied. I am a woman btw. I am terrrified about the hatred and the hypocrisy of the world we live in. We live in the 21st century and they are trying to threaten women with rape to make them silent and stay at home. nothing has changed and they are trying to convice us that things have changed. From now on everytime i hear somone talk about how ok is the world for women i am gonna scream anita sarkeesian. End of story. I am scared and sad and i dont want to be.

  40. Only hearing about Anita from GamerGaters (pro and anti) you never hear that Feminist Frequency is a project that predates GamerGate.

  41. I honestly pity people like Anita so damn much… They have to put up with so much more for making content that has little difference with a lot of what existed at the time and still exists on youtube today. She was at least successful and lucky enough to achieve a lot with this and not fall as soon as this happened. Smaller people making similar content were probably driven mad or dehumanized to the point of not being able to do anything on the internet again without someone witch-hunting them.

  42. I just find it funny how feminist who come on the internet are completely taken aback and surprised at shitposters and shitposting.

  43. A few years later and the FBI found that none of the threats against Anita were credible. She also made a ton of money instead, so the reason for publicizing those threats is quite obvious. It was a highly successful grift. Now that her victim fame has faded, her company is on the verge of bankruptcy.

  44. This video wasn't needed. It's simply the internet phenomenon, where people dogpile to extreme degrees on those that commit even lesser slights. Now if this video was attempting to defend Anita… that's a bit inane.

  45. As a gamer, non-white, straight, "cis", middle class person.
    This shit is hilarious and I'm dying right now, I'm bout to enjoy the rollercoaster that is… .this

  46. 5 Years later and this video is still wrong and disingenuous, yes there are comments still spewing Bullshit but that doesn't mean they not having a point.
    Because She was disingenuous and lied or didn't know what She was talking about. Just to push her extremist Feminist agenda.

  47. You had me up until the last point. I'm going to continue watching the rest of this but I definitely had a spike of anger out of being judged like that lol.
    I personally prefer to judge someone by their character, not their background. Lets see where this goes, hopefully the series holds up.

  48. her whole attack on video games makes me think she was dumped by some guy who at one point liked video games so she decided to attack it in the name of feminist everywhere. What, thats what I'm getting from anything I see from her! Said from a woman gamer. At enjoys looking at beautiful women characters.

  49. This channel went 6 videos before becoming a conspiracy theory channel demonizing that evil Alt-Right. Which died shortly after Richard Spenser took over but none the less make a convenient boogeyman. The fact is Anita Sarkisian is a misinformed misandrist who capitalized on her perceived victimhood for fame. While lashing out at people who offered honest criticism. To be honest, I normally wouldn’t care but she bullied Buggie2988 because he upstaged her, and he didn’t deserve it. Not only that but people have made a concerted effort to smear Biogie because he unintentionally crossed her.

  50. The reason why geek culture is male- centric is because society as whole pushed these guys to make their own culture back in the 70s-90s in the first place. Now that geek culture is cool, you're all pushing for yourselves to be in the limelight. If you didn't push men into an escapism- centric culture in the first place you wouldn't have to deal with this.

  51. I’m so embarrassed to have supported gamer gate when it happened, I was 14 and idolized amazing atheist and just repeated what he said :///

  52. Angry jack is prolly angry because he drives a slow as frig slug bug with a burnt #3 exhaust valve, leaky exhaust manifold heater, and is immediately going to lose his momentum he slowly gained by driving with the pedal to the metal.

  53. The really funny thing for me personally about the whole thing with Anita Sarkeesian is that I became aware of her work because of the outrage and I really really wanted to hate her. But because of the education I received from my leftist parents I first had listen to the other site and do I watched some videos of "Tropes vs Women" and besides some minor nit-picks I couldn't disagree with her. And now I have to say that I admire her.

  54. By the comments in gonna assume the video is an apology for Anita and defending her shitty behavior. Here's your dislike. Didn'tt even watched. Lol

  55. Its funny to see how the like/dislike ratio improves over the series. Almost like people who disagree with you dont have the courage to listen to more than 1/6 of your point.

    This is actually really sad, because i actually think most of them would agree with a lot you say in 3-6.

  56. Anita Sarkeesian is annoying sometimes yeah but Jesus Christ people get wayyy too triggered and hysterical over her. It’s just some woman talking about feminist opinions, just disagree with it and move on with your life

  57. Can confirm that the reason I(can't speak for others) dislike is through her, bullying(ex. boogie2988 and everything that happened at vidcon in 2017), lying about being a long time member of the community(i.e saying she was a gamer, but in reality, previous footage represented her statements saying she was, in fact, not a member of the culture at all, and had to do "research" to make her parody music video), and how she lied about a decent portion of her death threats(screenshots were uploaded showing she had signed out of an account that had sent her death threats). She's just a very dishonest and two faced person, and based on all that I know of her, I wouldn't want her to a part of my community either.

    Feminism/Egalitarianism is an important topic to discuss, but Anita is not the mouthpiece I would want for that topic. She sets a bad example for the kind of people that care about both the topics on hand, and the industries themselves. It makes someone who actually cares and is involved in the communities in a positive way, such as Gail Simone, look bad via proxy.

    TL;DR I disagree with individual, what they've done, and how they've represented themselves, and not the culture of feminism or the idea of equality or being scrutinous on potentially sexist/dated topics and tropes in video games or other mediums.

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