What is Myopia (Short sightedness)?

ORIGIN OF THE WORD It comes from the Greek word muōps meaning
short-sighted these people cannot see distant objects clearly. ANATOMY
Before we can describe myopia let’s compare the eye ball to a camera for better understanding. When we take a picture, light after reflecting
from an object enters the camera and passes through following;
Firstly, it passes a transparent glass in front of the aperture of the camera. Then secondly, it passes a Camera lens that
helps us in focusing light rays and lastly, there is a Camera film on which light is focused
for a clear picture. Eye is somewhat similar as when we see an
object, light after reflection from that object enters our eye through;
Firstly, it passes cornea (the transparent curved front part of eye) then secondly, it
passes through the crystalline lens that helps us in focusing light rays and lastly, there
is the retina (light sensitive receptor cells in the posterior part of eye ball) on which
light is focused for a clear image. Definition of Myopia
It is a form of refractive error (inability to refract/ bend/focus the light rays properly)
in which parallel rays of light(i.e. Coming from a distinct object) after entering
the eye are focused in front of the retina instead of on retina with eye muscles at rest CAUSES:
Curvature: increase of curvature of cornea or lens causes light rays to be focused in
front of retina and hence myopia occurs. Axial: increase in axial length of eye, increases
the converging power and cause light rays to be focused in front of retina
Index: increase in refractive index (i.e. light bending/focusing power) of the lens
(For example in cataract) Positional: anterior displacement of lens
e.g. after trauma this again causes light rays to be focused in front of retina TYPES
Congenital : from birth Simple: most common, starts from 5-10 years
till 20-15 years and is mostly due to curvature or length problem of eye ball
Pathological: hereditary, progressive and is due to degenerative changes in the eyes CLINICAL FEATURES
SYMPTOMS Blurred vision
Half shutting of eyes (parents of child will tell)
Outward deviation of eye (Divergent squint) (normal pts require to move their eyes inward
while focusing near objects this is not required in myopic pts causing their eye to move out
intermittently or constantly) SIGNS
Prominent eye ball (as eye is big) Retinal changes (in pathological myopia) DIAGNOSIS
Retinoscopy (a hand-held device that throws light in the eye and allowing us to observe
its movements and reflection, hence helping to confirm the refractive error)
A-scan (a small ultrasound probe that throws Ultrasound waves in the eye ball and then
detects their reflections or echo timings, calculating the eye ball length)
TREATMENT Unlike the camera, maximum (2/3rd) focusing
in an eye is done by the transparent front part(cornea) while the rest (1/3rd) is done
by the lens. So, while treating these patients we have
to decrease the focusing power of the eye so that image is formed on the retina instead
of in front of it. This can be done by using either a diverging
lens like Glasses
Contact lenses Or some surgical procedure can be done to
reduce the focusing power of either the cornea or the lens so that image forms on Retina
instead of in front of it. SURGICAL TREATMENT
Flattening the central part of cornea. This include different methods that were changed
and advanced depending upon reduction of side effects and recovery time and improvement
of degree of vision. The surgeries included in this category are Radial keratotomy Photorefractive keratectomy LASEK: laser epithelial keratomileusis LASIK: Laser In-situ Keratomileusis: Other Surgical Treatment options are: Lens extraction Contact lens implantation


  1. Hi i love these animations that are uploaded. I would suggest to make videos and animations based on the final MBBS subjects, like Medicine, Surgery, Obstetrics and Gynaecology.These videos have helped me a lot though. Thank you.👍🏻

  2. I have short sightedness and my parents told me the optometrist said it was due to me being a gamer because the optometrist used words I didn't understand but I believe I heard that one of my eyes were oddly shaped, there gonna get it when they find out what you've told me (not in a bad way, I'm just gonna roast em)

  3. Myopia a.k.a. Nearsightedness is caused by the fact that we stay too much in front of the screens and the answer whether or not it is reversable is controversary, you need committment and daily focus, if you think myopia can be reversed easily by a magic pill, then just keep on wearing the glasses, if you believe with daily hard work, you can get your vision back, then hard work will always find a way, lazyness won't.

  4. I had good distant sight but poor close reading sight before I had a Floaters only Vitrectomy . Now things have reversed as I now can read small print up close but my distant vision is blurred. I bought -1 Myopia glasses and distance is clear but I need to know why things changed after my operation and whether it can be fixed.

  5. I have this 💔 it doesn’t feel good . Headaches all the time lasting for 2-3 days . If you need glasses just wear them don’t worry about everyone . Put them on and zone everyone out

  6. No child should ever have to wear eyeglasses for distance. Normal people DO NOT NEED EYEGLASSES for this. Is there a euthanasia for assholes like me who were born with this shitty eyesight ? Can I die and at least donate my shitty eyesight somewhere? I WANT TO KNOW ABOUT MY EUTHANASIA OPTIONS AS A MYOPIC PERSON BECAUSE MY LIFE HAS BEEN WASTED BECAUSE OF FUCKING EYEGLASSES. I want euthanasia. I was too nerdy and stupid for a family or real life. Nobody will miss me when I die. I can only hope that future kids will have better eyesight than myself.

  7. What a fantastic, concise explanation of a very common eye disorder! The visual explanation truly helped in understanding the clinical term.

  8. Myopia sucks. I hate myopia. Both my parents had eye problems and they felt OK with giving life to children with myopia. Myopics should be euthanized and sterilized (no kids). What's the point of living life only to become some stooge for the optics industry, and to be labeled as a 'nerd' or a 'know it how' by normal people only because of the need to wear glasses. Myopia is a DISEASE (NOT a 'refractive error' as some say) that ruins lives.

  9. I heard when you focus on short distance objects such as computer screens for too long, your eye starts to grow longer and you get myopia

  10. I have myopia and wear glasses. When I go outside I don't wear them beacuse I can see perfectly fine but when I'm in school I wear them because I can't from far and it's really annoying

  11. Thank you for the information. A few weeks ago I just got to my doctor and found out I have myopia in my left eye and hyperopia in my right eye. I often dislike glases before but it has been a change of game since I was wearing one. A few headaches from the first days but I'm loving it now.

  12. hello I'm 17 years old and have myopia have both eyes -1,0 and my question is I have to wear glasses when I read a book or when i writing in school the problem is when I read without glasses I see everything blurry, I have to wear the glasses when i read

  13. Such high production quality, but it would have made a slightly better impression if some of the nouns had articles in front of them. Not a big deal though.

  14. 2:43 MY PARENTS THOUGHT I WAS CRAZY when my eyes started doing this i went to the docter today and they diagnosed me with it today but I think it’s because when I was little I would use to stare at the sun a lot and when I do tic toks of my eyes I use flash and it not good

  15. i have myopia in 1 eye and tbh i dont see blurry sights but when i close the other eye i see blurred vission

  16. I have this and it’s horrible , i feel trapped when I don’t have my glasses in because I know I can’t see and I start to panic 🤧

  17. Using myopia glasses just a bit lower/weaker than what u need is enough to help reduce/reverse myopia? The eye see almost fine but force him self on getting better, every time the glasses get good enough, u change for new one just a bit weaker, util u dont need they anymore?

  18. Hey guys,I am near sighted, as a result I have observed my eyeballs grew longer and in turn it looks like I have bigger popping eyes. What can I do to reverse this axial length growth? . PS I didn't have this this enlargement issue until 2 years ago.

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